Science News

Climate change will increase armed conflicts according to a new study

Climate change, basically global warming in progress, will directly affect the global strategic balance and could lead, according to a new study, to an increase in armed conflicts.

The new research, carried out by experts from various institutes including Stanford University and Exeter, takes into consideration the hypothesis of an increase in global average temperatures of more than 2 ° C above pre-industrial levels.

According to the scientists behind this study, if temperatures rise more than 2 ° C, the risks of armed conflict increase by 13% and the higher the temperatures the more this risk increases. In fact, heating will not only lead to higher temperatures but also to droughts and floods which in turn will cause real economic shocks, that is more or less sudden economic crises that will bring the weaker states and those whose economies are particularly weak to their knees.

In these cases, the widespread impoverishment and inability of states to deal with these situations could then easily lead to episodes of violence as has always happened in those cases in which poverty or inequality between groups increases strongly and relatively quickly social partners in a particular region or area.

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Clash with Antlia 2 formed ripples of the outer disk of the Milky Way

The outer disk of the Milky Way characterized by various gaseous ripples that have been studied over the years. The cause that generated them was not fully identified and a new study, conducted by Sukanya Chakrabarti, a researcher at the Rochester Institute of Technology, puts a new theory on the table regarding their formation.

These ripples would have been produced by a collision in the past between the Milky Way and the dwarf galaxy Antlia 2, a galaxy with dimensions similar to those of the Great Magellanic cloud but much weaker at a diluminosity level so that it is defined as a dark galaxy. Analyzing the data produced by the Gaia mission of the European Space Agency, a researcher was able to understand that Antlia 2 crashed at some point in the past against the Milky Way producing the large ripples in the external gas disk that we see today.

Further data produced by Gaia will make this theory even clearer. Among other things, this work could also help to understand from what dark matter can be made, as Chakrabarti explains: “If Antlia 2 is the dwarf galaxy we had foreseen, you know what its orbit should be. You know it must have come close to the galactic disk. This places stringent constraints, therefore, not only on the mass, but also on its density profile. This means that in the end it is possible to use Antlia 2 as a unique laboratory to learn about the nature of dark matter.”

This is not the only theory concerning the external ripples of the Milky Way: in this work, however, the researchers have excluded the other major ones. For example, the tidal force of Sagittarius’s elliptical dwarf galaxy is judged by the researchers to be insufficient, while the large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud are too far apart to have a gravitational effect on the outer material of the Milky Way.

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Rheumatoid arthritis pain produced by specific antibodies according to new discovery

A group of researchers from the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden has discovered that joint pains, typical of rheumatoid arthritis, can exist even in the absence of arthritis and this would be caused, as scientists have seen by performing experiments on mice, by particular antibodies.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that affects about 1% of the world’s population; it is an inflammation of the joints which can also be very painful. However, the pain can appear before the inflammation itself and can exist even after one has recovered, as reported by the same Camilla Svensson, researcher of the Swedish Institute and author together with other colleagues of the study appeared in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

This is because the body starts producing immune antibodies to counteract the immune cells that attack the cartilage and the bones of the joints in the very early phase of inflammation and this action can, in turn, generate pain. The researchers injected these antibodies into the cartilage of mice and found that rodents suffered more from the sensation of pain even before the appearance of signs of inflammation in the joint.

Following analysis, the researchers discovered that immune cells, groups of antibodies, and cartilage proteins in the joints triggered the pain cells.

The discovery that there are antibodies in the body of mice that can affect pain neurons even if there is no actual tissue damage or inflammation could help develop new therapies to reduce pain-specific neuronal activity for human patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other autoimmune diseases.